Macrodontia is a type of localized gigantism in which teeth are larger than normal for the particular type(s) of teeth involved. The three types of macrodontia are true generalized macrodontia, relative generalized macrodontia, and macrodontia of a single tooth.
The usual complications of macrodontia are associated with crowding, malocclusion and impaction unless treated.
A single tooth is larger than the rest. This is unusual and could be the result of fusion and germination that cause enlarged crowns.
Generalized macrodontia is usually attributed to some hormonal imbalance (e.g., pituitary, gigantism).
Genetic components are also responsible for macrodontia.
Before treatment the correct diagnosis must be made which is easily done by a radiograph. It can be seen in concerned tooth/teeth will be larger than normal that can be seen clinically in the mouth or whilst they are still unerupted.
Teeth affected by macrodontia are contoured, aligned or extracted.
- Contouring involves shaving the tooth down to change shape and size. However, the result is minimal change as this could be dangerous for the dentin and dental pulp.
- Aligning involves the use of braces to straighten and make space for larger teeth to grow.
- When extracted, they are replaced with an implant or bridge. This is done in cases in which the patient suffers from pain that cannot be treated by other methods.
Teeth with macrodontia can go through treatment using a technique that does not harm the dental pulp. This is done using a tooth coloured filling material (composite resin).