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“A smile is the prettiest thing you can wear”

A good oral hygiene ensures a happy and natural smile.

A great initiative taken by RYAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, MOHALI in collaboration with THE DENTAL ARCADE, CHANDIGARH.

A dental check-up camp was organized in Gurudwara sahib, Mohali on 11-October-2019. A Dental check up of around 50-100 people was done by the Dental Arcade Team.

Their oral health was evaluated and they were advised to maintain their oral hygiene. A small talk was given by Dr. Vijita Mehta regarding awareness of oral health. It was great experience for our team to be a part of the camp.








Sometimes simplest things mean the most.

A pleasant surprise by Ryan International school, Mohali.

Thank you so much for sending us such a lovely and meaningful gift in the form of little saplings, your gift made our day even more special. Thanks a ton again for appreciating our efforts.


Space maintainers

space maintainers 2

A space maintainer is an appliance that is custom-made by a dentist or orthodontist in acrylic or metal material. It can be either removable or cemented in a child’s mouth. Its purpose is to keep the space open to allow the permanent tooth to erupt and come into place.

Children may need space maintainers if they lose a tooth early or have a baby (primary) tooth extracted due to dental decay.

Types of Space Maintainers

There are two types of space maintainers for children, removable and fixed.

There are numerous types of space maintainers. They range from the very simple to those with numerous bands and wires.

A removable space maintainer, of course, can be removed. A fixed space maintainer is fixed (i.e., held) to a tooth or to more than one tooth.


  • Removable – Removable space maintainers are similar to orthodontic appliances and are usually made of acrylic. In some cases, an artificial tooth may be used to fill a space that must remain open for the unerupted tooth.


  • Fixed – There are four different kinds of fixed space maintainers: unilateral, crown and loop, distal shoe and lingual.


Are Space Maintainers Always Necessary?

  • Not every tooth that is lost too early requires a space maintainer. If one of the four upper front teeth is lost early, the space will stay open on its own until the permanent tooth comes in.
  • If you do not take your child to the dentist regularly — at least every six months — a space maintainer can cause problems. This especially can occur if your child does not brush well. The gum tissue in the space can grow over the wire arm, increasing the risk of infection. If that happens, your child’s dentist may have to remove the gum tissue by surgery.
  • If the permanent tooth is about to erupt, the dentist may decide not to use a space maintainer unless your child needs braces and space is a critical issue.


Caring for Your Space Maintainer

The space maintainer may feel unusual at first. But after a few days, your child probably will forget about it.

A removable space maintainer with replacement teeth can affect speech until your child gets used to it.

This photograph shows an example of a fixed bilateral space maintainer.




Caring for Baby’s teeth

Caring for Baby’s Gums

You can start caring for baby’s gums right away. But at first, the care won’t involve a toothbrush and toothpaste. Instead, take these steps:

  • Get a soft, moistened washcloth or piece of gauze.
  • Gently wipe down your baby’s gums at least twice a day.
  • Especially wipe your baby’s gums after feedings and before bedtime.

This will wash off bacteria and prevent them from clinging to gums. Bacteria can leave behind a sticky plaque that damages infant teeth as they come in.

Brushing Baby’s Teeth

When the first baby teeth start to pop up, you can graduate to a toothbrush. Choose one with a:

  • soft brush
  • small head
  • large handle

At first, just wet the toothbrush. As soon as teeth erupt, you can start using toothpaste in the amount of a grain of rice. You can increase this to a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste when your child is age 3. Brush gently all around your child’s baby teeth — front and back.

You should brush your baby’s teeth until he or she is old enough to hold the brush. Continue to supervise the process until your child can rinse and spit without assistance. That usually happens at around age 6.

Keep on the lookout for any signs of baby tooth decay — brown or white spots or pits on the teeth.


It can take two years before all of the infant teeth have made their way through your baby’s gums. The process as each tooth emerges is called “teething.”

Teething is uncomfortable. That’s why your baby cries and fusses in the days or weeks before each baby tooth pops up. Babies can display other teething symptoms, too, including:

  • drooling
  • swollen gums

Here are a few tips to relieve your baby’s teething pain:

Teething rings. Let your baby chew on a clean, cool teething ring or cold washcloth. Just avoid giving your child anything that is small enough to choke on. Also avoid a teething ring with liquid inside that could break open.

Gum rubbing. Rub your baby’s gums with a clean finger.

bbay teeth



Immediate Dentures



What you need to know about Immediate Dentures

The advantage of immediate dentures is that you can walk away with a full smile the same day, immediately following the removal of natural teeth. A set of immediate dentures may be the best solution when complete extractions of your remaining teeth are unavoidable, but it would be inconvenient for you to live without teeth while conventional dentures are created – which can take days or weeks. However, because immediate dentures are inserted right after your dental surgery, the gums and jaw will change shape as they heal so it may be necessary to have an immediate denture adjusted.

What are immediate dentures?

As the name suggests, immediate dentures are dentures that are inserted into a patient’s mouth immediately after their teeth are removed.

Immediate Dentures vs. Regular Dentures

Regular dentures are made for a patient’s mouth from a mold after the teeth have been removed. A dentist lets the patient’s gums heal after the operation and then inserts dentures that have been molded and fit for the oral cavity. It may take some time for the dentures to be ready. Then, there is a fitting and potential adjustment, but once all details have been worked out, permanent dentures provide a long-term solution. Immediate dentures are molded to a patient’s oral cavity prior to extraction and fitted once the teeth have been pulled. The benefits of the immediate dentures procedure are that you will walk away with a full set of teeth. However, as your bones and gums heal, adjustments may be necessary. In some cases, patients must replace this set of dentures with a new set of permanent dentures after their mouth has healed completely. When considering if immediate dentures vs. regular dentures are right for you, you should discuss your needs and priorities with your dentist.



Dental plaque



Dental plaque, also known as tooth plaque, microbial plaque and dental biofilm, is a soft, sticky film that builds up on your teeth. Plaque is an extremely sticky, colorless to pale yellow deposit of biofilm that regularly forms on your teeth. When saliva, food, and fluids combine they produce bacteria deposits, which collect where the teeth and gums meet. Plaque contains bacteria, which produce acids that attack your tooth enamel and can damage your gums. If not treated, the damage could become permanent.  It contains millions of bacteria that feed on the food and drinks you eat

What Causes Plaque and Why Is It Harmful?

Plaque develops when foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches), such as milk, soft drinks, raisins, cakes, or candy are frequently left on the teeth. Bacteria that live in the mouth thrive on these foods, producing acids as a result. Over a period of time, these acids destroy tooth enamel, resulting in tooth decay. Plaque can also develop on the tooth roots under the gum and cause breakdown of the bone supporting the tooth.

So why is plaque a problem?

If you don’t take the steps needed to prevent and get rid of plaque, it may lead to:-

Cavities: the acids produced by the bacteria in plaque can cause low pH level and can eat away at your tooth enamel.

Gingivitis: Accumulation of plaque bacteria can cause inflammation of the gums.

Bad Breath: Plaque buildup from poor dental hygiene can also cause your breath to smell bad.

How to prevent tooth plaque:-

  •  Visit your dentist every 6 months. Adults who see their dentists regularly are less likely to have plaque related dental diseases.
  • Floss daily to remove food particles and plaque between teeth. To prevent the buildup of plaque, be sure to floss once a day  and brush your teeth at least twice a day with toothpaste.
  • If you have electric toothbrush, and remember to replace the head every 3 months. Use a quality toothbrush, or as soon as the bristles look worn.
  • Avoid smoking to reduce the risk of increased plaque and tartar.
  • Use a mouthwash such as Multi-Protection Mouthwash to help prevent plaque buildup on teeth to your routine against plaque and gingivitis.



Dental Cyst


What Is a Dental Cyst?

A dental cyst is very much like a closed sack. What is inside the sack can differ from patient to patient. Some cysts are comprised of air, some of soft tissue, and others are filled with fluid that can build up next to and around teeth. A dental cyst left to grow without treatment can lead to severe problems for your oral health.

Where Are Cysts Found?

There are various types of dental cysts.

Periapical cyst:-These cysts form at the root tip, and are typically caused by trauma, a crack in the tooth, or decay that has infected or killed the nerve (pulp) of the tooth.

Dentigerous Cysts: These cysts grow around unerupted or partially-erupted teeth, particularly wisdom teeth.

Keratocysts: These cysts typically form due to trauma or genetics. These cysts are aggressive and exhibit a high rate of recurrence, even after surgical removal.
Periodontal Cysts: These types of cysts are caused by advanced periodontal or gum disease, and thus are bacterial in nature.

Potential Oral Health Problems

A cyst left to grow can create unwanted pressure on teeth that can have the opposite effect on your smile. For example, a worsening cyst can eventually affect your bite by moving teeth, change the way you chew and digest food, and weaken the jawbone. In extreme cases of undetected cysts, the jawbone can actually be put at risk for fracture, among other complications.

Furthermore, a dental cyst can become infected and can eventually develop into an abscess, or pus-filled sack, which can spread the bacterial infection throughout your body.

Now that we have determined that cysts are bad, how will your dentist treat the cyst found in your mouth?

How to Treat Dental Cysts

The dental cyst will first require a thorough examination by your dentist or maxillofacial surgeon. The type of treatment used will depend on the type of cyst as well as where it’s located.

A cyst that forms on the root of a tooth might require endodontic or root canal treatment in order for the cyst to begin the healing process.



Leukoedema is the normal anatomic variant of the oral mucosa which has clinical appearance similar to potentially malignant white lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. Other lesions which closely mimic leukoedema are white sponge nevus and cheek bite.

Leukoedema is a harmless white lesion of the oral cavity which mimics premalignant lesion more so when it is associated with smoking.


Signs and symptoms

There is a diffuse, gray-white, milky opalescent appearance of the mucosa which usually occurs bilaterally on the buccal mucosa. The surface of the area is folded, creating a wrinkled, white streaked lesion. Apart from the appearance, the lesion is entirely asymptomatic.


The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be caused by intracellular edema of the superficial epithelial cells coupled with retention of superficial parakeratin. Although leukoedema is thought to be a developmental condition, it may be more common and more pronounced in smokers, and becomes less noticeable when smoking is stopped. Smoking cannabis is known to be linked to this condition. It may also develop in areas subjected to repeat subclinical irritation, caused by low grade irritants such as spices, oral debris or tobacco.




No treatment is required for leukoedema.


Mouth sores(Ulcers)

mouth ulcer 2

Mouth ulcers are painful areas in the mouth and gums.

While mostly harmless, mouth ulcers can be extremely uncomfortable and make it difficult for some people to eat, drink, and brush their teeth.

Mouth ulcers range in size, and the exact symptoms of the mouth ulcer will depend on what type of ulcer a person has.

Fast facts on mouth ulcers:

  • Most mouth ulcers are recurring
  •  Acidic foods can aggravate mouth ulcers.
  • It is important to note that a doctor or dentist should examine any new ulcer and any ulcer lasting longer than 3 weeks.
  • For most people, mouth ulcers will clear up within 2 weeks.


The exact cause of mouth ulcers is still not known and varies from person-to-person. Still, there are some common causes and several factors that may aggravate mouth ulcers, including the following:

  • Biting the tongue or inside of the cheek
  • Braces, poor-fitting dentures, and other apparatus that may rub against the mouth and gums
  • A deficient filling
  • Stress or anxiety
  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy, puberty, and menopause
  • Medications including bit-blockers and pain killers
  • genetic factors


Symptoms of minor and major ulcers include:

  • one or more painful sores that may appear on the cheeks, the roof of the mouth, or the tongue
  • the appearance of round lesions that have red edges and are yellow, white, or gray in the middle

During more extreme outbreaks of mouth ulcers, some people may experience fever, sluggishness, and swollen glands.


In many cases, the pain and discomfort from mouth ulcers will lessen in a few days and then disappear in about 2 weeks with no need for treatment.

For people with much more painful or frequent recurrence of mouth ulcers, a dentist may prescribe a solution to reduce swelling and lessen pain.

Also, a dentist may prescribe an antimicrobial mouthwash or an ointment to be applied directly to the infected patch. This can help to ease discomfort. Various mouth ulcer treatments are also available to purchase

  • Avoid spicy and sour foods until the ulcers heal.
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Regularly rinse your mouth out with warm, slightly salted water.
  • Keep your mouth clean.
  • Use an alcohol-free medicated mouthwash
  • Use a topical steroid mouthwash or ointment – generally prescribed by your dentist or oral medicine specialist.




Tongue Thrust


Tongue thrust, also known as reverse swallow or deviate swallow, is a condition in which the tongue is pressed up against the teeth or between them while gulping. In many cases, this condition leads to the movement of the tongue incorrectly to the sides, instead of moving forward to the teeth. This improper positioning of the tongue can occur even as the tongue is at rest, and in this case, it will lie too far forward.

Types of Tongue Thrust

Tongue thrust is an orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD), having many different types.

  • Unilateral thrust when the tongue pushes unilaterally to the sides between the back teeth during swallowing
  • Anterior thrust refers to the case when the upper incisors are extremely protruded and lower lip is pulled in by the lower lip.
  • Bilateral thrust, when the tongue pushes between the back teeth on both sides during swallowing. Large tongue can also be noted

Tongue thrust in babies

In babies who are breastfed or bottle-fed, tongue thrust is normal. As the child gets older, their swallowing and speaking pattern should evolve.

However, some types of bottle nipples — and prolonged use of a bottle — can lead to an abnormal tongue thrust that lasts past the infant stage and into early childhood.

There are several other potential causes for tongue thrust that begin in infancy. Some of these include:

  • Long-term sucking habits that influence the tongue’s movement, like sucking of the thumb, fingers, or tongue
  • Allergies accompanied by chronically swollen tonsils or adenoids
  • Tongue-tie, where the band of tissue beneath the tongue is tight or short
  • A swallowing pattern known as reverse swallow

Tongue thrust has a number of telltale signs that manifest in children who have developed the pattern. These can include:

  • Tongue is visible between the teeth. The tip of the tongue sticks out between the teeth, whether the child is resting, swallowing, or speaking.
  • Mouth breathing.
  • Inability to close the lips completely. This could be due to a structural abnormality or habit.
  • Open bite. This occurs when the front teeth don’t meet when the teeth are closed.
  • Slow, fast, or messy eating.
  • Speech impediment. Lisping of s and z sounds is common.

Treatment of Tongue thurst

Tongue thrust often corrects with time or at the age of 8-9 years. Self-correction is due to musculature Balance during swelling.

  • Orthodontic treatment can be carried out.
  • Speech therapy is indicated.
  • If an associated habit is present like thumb sucking than it must be treated first.
  • Training the tongue for correct swallow & posture.
  • Use of appliances to correct position of tongue.
  • Correction of Malocclusion.



Leukoplakia is a reaction to a chronic irritation, like rough teeth, badly fitting dentures, smoking, and smokeless tobacco. It can show up as white patches or plaques in the mouth, is usually painless, and can’t be scraped off. Leukoplakia can also be a precancerous condition. Persistent patches or other changes in your mouth. Mild leukoplakia is usually harmless and generally goes away on its own. More serious cases may be linked to oral cancer.

Symptoms of Leukoplakia:-

This condition is marked by unusual looking patches inside the mouth. These patches can vary in appearance. Generally, patches resulting from leukoplakia have the following features:

  • white or grey color
  • thick, hard, and raised surface
  • hairy (hairy leukoplakia only)

Rarely, the patches have red spots. Redness may be a sign of cancer.                           Leukoplakia most often occurs on the tongue. However, cheeks and gums are also vulnerable. The patches may take several weeks to develop, but they are rarely painful.      Causes:­-Smoking is the most common cause. Chewing tobacco can also cause leukoplakia. Biting the cheek, rough uneven teeth  and dentures (especially if improperly fitted).   


What Causes Leukoplakia?

  • Irritation from rough teeth, fillings, or crowns, or ill-fitting dentures that rub against your cheek or gum
  • Chronic smoking, pipe smoking, or other tobacco use
  • Sun exposure to the lips
  • Oral cancer (although rare)
  • HIV or AIDS

What Are the Symptoms of Leukoplakia?

The presence of white or gray colored patches on your tongue, gums, roof of your mouth, or the inside of the cheeks of your mouth may be a sign of leukoplakia. The patch may have developed slowly over weeks to months and be thick, slightly raised, and may eventually take on a hardened and rough texture. It usually is painless, but may be sensitive to touch, heat, spicy foods, or other irritation.

How Is Leukoplakia Diagnosed?

Your dentist may suspect leukoplakia upon examination; however, a biopsy will likely be taken to rule out other causes, such as oral cancer. During the biopsy, a small piece of tissue from the lesion will be removed to be examined in a lab. A numbing agent will be used so that you will not feel any pain.

Treatment for Leukoplakia?

Treatment for leukoplakia, if needed, involves removing the source of irritation.

For example, if leukoplakia is caused by a rough tooth or an irregular surface on a denture or a filling, the tooth will be smoothed and dental appliances repaired.

If leukoplakia is caused by smoking, you will be asked to minimize or stop smoking or using other tobacco products.